Database management is a system for managing information that supports the business operations of an organization. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications and editing it as required as well as monitoring changes in data and protecting against data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is an integral part of the overall informational infrastructure of a business that supports decision making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.
A database is a set of tables that arrange data in accordance with a specific arrangement, like one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records, and also allows cross-references between tables. Each table contains a set of attributes or fields that represent facts about data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most well-known database type currently. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It is also simpler to update data since it does not require changing certain sections of the database.
Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of external views based on different data models. It also may also include virtual tables that are computed using generic data to improve the performance.